History of two hectares of OpdeHaar garden
The history of OpdeHaar gardens can be traced back many centuries. Just outside Amersfoort intersecting motorways come very close to marking the geographical centre of The Netherlands. Close by there is a wood of large, old trees which betrays the existence of the old family estate associated with Huize Hoevelaken. Although the location of the earliest “castle” is not known, it is known that in ca 1410 it was a significant distance from the current “chateau” which dates from 1923.
In 1963 the estate was sold and split up. The “castle” and surrounding park belonged to the Bouwfonds Nederlands Gemeenten but is now in private hands. Most of the woodland is owned by the Stichting Geldersch Landschap, an organisation which aims to conserve the landscape and historical areas in Gelderland.
Foundation stone laid in 1958
The foundation stone for “OpdeHaar” which is situated in the middle of the wood was laid in 1958. It is here that the last owners of the estate lived until 1987. “OpdeHaar” on the Veenwal means “on the rise in the fen”. Locals relate that the house was built on ground which was previously a potato field and which is higher than the surrounding woodland. In past centuries the woods to the south of the house were clearly very swampy.
History students will immediately identify the intact structure of a “rabattenbos”. A “rabattenbos” is a wood that was drained by excavating earth to create parallel ditches with elevated strips of land in between. These could date back as far as the 13th Century and are still clearly visible today. According to locals the wood growing on these strips was used for fuelling stoves until the early 1950’s.
When we arrived in 1991, we found evidence of a lot of pollarding. However much of the wood was impenetrably choked with brambles and many spindly silver birches. Many of the ditches were invisible due to this undergrowth. As a consequence of the neglect many of the smaller trees and shrubs had died through lack of light. Notably there was no birdsong to be heard. Fortunately, today light filters through the trees and the wood is alive with the chattering of many different birds.
The wood in september 2014
Old oak trees and the longest beech tree avenue in The Netherlands
|Almost 300 year old oak|
Other bits of history require that one looks at the large oak and beech trees. Indeed, some of the oak trees on the property are between 200-300 years old. Apart from the lines of beech trees flanking the road, which leads from the castle through the wood, there are remains of other avenues. One idea put forward is that these may be the remains of a “sterrenbos” (star-wood) planting which past owners of the estate used for hunting.
“OpdeHaar” was built with a compass
|Liriodendron tulipifera (left) and Abies Grandis (centre) in the autumn|
The front of our house faces due north with the main gardens on the south side of the house. On the south side of the house there is and Abies grandis and Liriodendron (Tulip Tree) which date from around 1958. Some of the other large trees e.g. Castanea and Tilia also date from this time. Rhododendron ponticum (cultivars) were also planted to provide some privacy around the house. Little else remains of the planting from these early days apart from the general layout in the immediate vicinity of the house. also date from this time.
The brickwork paths and drive were put in by owners in the period 1987-1990. In addition the pergola covered with wisteria to the south of the house and the small rose garden along with the surrounding hedges were also planted by the previous owners. However all of the rest of the design of the garden and the planting, including the pond, the Millennium garden and the clearing and the planting of the wood has been carried out by John and Joyce Ramsbotham since 1991.